Monday, February 21, 2011

How To Help The Shy Child & Marion C. Hyson and Karen Van Trieste

Shyness is a common but little understood emotion. Everyone has felt ambivalent or self-conscious in new social situations. However, at times shyness may interfere with optimal social development and restrict children's learning. This digest (1) describes types and manifestations of shyness, (2) reviews research on genetic, temperamental, and environmental influences on shyness, (3) distinguishes between normal and problematic shyness, and (4) suggests ways to help the shy child.
What Is Shyness?

The basic feeling of shyness is universal, and may have evolved as an adaptive mechanism used to help individuals cope with novel social stimuli. Shyness is felt as a mix of emotions, including fear and interest, tension and pleasantness. Increase in heart rate and blood pressure may occur. An observer recognizes shyness by an averted, downward gaze and physical and verbal reticence. The shy person's speech is often soft, tremulous, or hesitant. Younger children may suck their thumbs: some act coy, alternately smiling and pulling away.

Shyness is distinguishable from two related behavior patterns; wariness and social disengagement. Infant wariness of strangers lacks the ambivalent approach/avoidance quality that characterizes shyness. Some older children may prefer solitary play and appear to have low needs for social interaction, but experience none of the tension of the genuinely shy child.

Children may be vulnerable to shyness at particular developmental points. Fearful shyness in response to new adults emerges in infancy. Cognitive advances in self-awareness bring greater social sensitivity in the second year. Self-conscious shyness-the possibility of embarrassment-appears at 4 or 5. Early adolescence ushers in a peak of self-consciousness.

The Beginning of Life

Life begins in the moment of conception – the time when a reproductive cell of the female (ovum, plural ova.) is fertilized by a male reproductive cell the spermatozoon (spermatozoa, plural). This is approximately 280 days before birth.

Within each sex cell (sperm/egg) there are 23 chromosomes. They are threadlike particles which contains between 40,000 and 60,000 genes. The genes contain DNA and RNA which are considered as the blueprint of life and transmitters of hereditary characteristics traits from the parent to the offspring.

Sex Determination

All the female gametes carry X chromosomes, while half of the male gametes carry the X chromosomes and the other half carry the Y chromosomes.

If the X bearing spermatozoon unites with the ovum, it will result to XX combination and the sex of the child is female. And if the Y bearing spermatozoon unites with the ovum, it will result to XY combination and the sex of the sex child is male.

Multiple Birth/Twins

The term multiple births refer to the birth of two or more babies within a few hours or days. There are two types of twin births – the identical and fraternal twins. The identical or uniovular twins come from a single ovum fertilized by a single sperm cell.

Sometimes, it happens that at a time of the first division of the cell the new cell separates instead of remaining together. Why the separation occurs, no one knows for certain, but there are evidence that it is a result of hormonal disturbances.

Non-identical, biovular or fraternal twins on the other hand, are the products of two ova fertilized simultaneously by two separate sperm cells.

Wednesday, March 10, 2010

early childhood education

Early childhood education often focuses on children learning through play.[1][2]
The terms preschool education and kindergarten emphasise education around the ages of 3-6 years. The terms "early childhood learning," "early care," and "early education" are comparable with early childhood education. The terms Day care and Childcare do not embrace the educational aspects. Many childcare centers are now using more educational approaches. They are creating curricula and incorporating it into their daily rountines to foster greater educational learning.

Researchers in the field and early childhood educators both view the parents as an integral part of the early childhood education process[3]. Early childhood education takes many forms depending on the beliefs of the educator or parent.
Much of the first two years of life are spent in the creation of a child's first "sense of self" or the building of a first identity.[citation needed] This is a crucial part of children's makeup—how they first see themselves, how they think they should function, how they expect others to function in relation to them.[citation needed] For this reason, early care must ensure that in addition to employing carefully selected and trained caretakers, program policy must emphasize links with family, home culture, and home language, meaning caregivers must uniquely care for each child using Developmentally Appropriate Practice, Individually Appropriate Practice and Culturally Appropriate Practice. Care should support families rather than be a substitute for them.[citation needed]

If a young child doesn't receive sufficient nurturing, nutrition, parental/caregiver interaction, and stimulus during this crucial period, the child may be left with a developmental deficit that hampers his or her success in preschool, kindergarten, and beyond.

Worst-case scenarios such as those found in Russian and Romanian orphanages demonstrate how the lack of proper social interaction and development of attachment affect the developing child.[4] Children must receive attention and affection to develop in a healthy manner.

Wednesday, February 10, 2010

The wonders of human development

Every human being is a product of fertilization of a sperm and an egg cell. Within nine months, this fertilized egg will undergoe series of changes and development inside the so-called "most comfortable place on earth, the uterus." This is where the real bonding between the mother and the fetus take place.

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Significant Facts About Human Development

Fundamental facts about human development...

1.Early foundations are critical.
2.Maturatin and lerning play important role in development.
3.Development follows a definite and predictable pattern.
4.All individuals are different.
5.Each phase of development has a characteritic 'pattern of behavior."
6.Each phase of development has hazards.
7.Development is aided by stimulation.
8.Development is affected by cultural changes.
9.There is social expectation for every stage of development.
10.There are traditional beliefs about people for all ages.

Development is a lifelong process beginning at conception and ending at death. The life span is arbitrarily divided into segment,with each segment being part of a whole. It is divided into:

1. pre-natal period- from conception to birth
2. infancy - from birth to end of second week
3. babyhood- from end of second week to end of the second year
4. early childhood from two to six years.
5. late childhood - from six to ten or twelve years
6. puberty - from ten to twelve or thirteen or fourteen
7. adolescence - from thirteen or fourteen to eighteen years
8. early adulthood - from eighteen to thirty five years
9. middle adulthood -from thirty five to sixty five years
10. late adulthood or senescence - from sixty-five years to death.

Havighurst's Developmental Tasks During the Life Span (Hurlock, 1982)

1. Babyhood
2. Early Childhood
3. Late Childhood
4. Adolescence
5. Early Adulthood
6. Middle Age
7. Old Age

List at least five Filipino traditional beliefs about people of all ages. Gather these information by asking adolescents,adults, and old people of both age.

Monday, November 30, 2009

Human Development

Concept of Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychology is one area of psychology that explains the course of physical, social, emotional, moral, and intellectual development over a person's life span.

Development refers to the progressive series of changes of an orderly and coherent type toward the goal of maturity.

"Progressive" means the changes are directional, leading toward something positive.

"Orderly" and "coherent" suggests that development is not of a haphazard, usual type but rather there is a definite relationship among the stages in the developmental sequence.

Developmental psychology is a chronology of different aspects of human development or a lifelong process from conception to death.

The goal of developmental changes is to enable people to adapt to the environment in which they live. To achieve this goal, sometimes called, self-actualization, is essential.

Types of Change in Development

In the development of a human being, major types of changes are manifested as follows:

Change in size . There is a change in physical and mental growth.

Change in proportion. Physical development is not only limited to size. It is also apparent in mental development. At first, a child is interested in himself alone, and later in others and in toys. Finally, his interests are directed toward members of opposite sex.

Disappearance of old features. Some features that disappear are the thymus glands, baby hair, Darwinian reflex, Babinski reflex, and baby forms of locomotion such as creeping and crawling.

Acquisition of new feature. New features are acquired such as the primary and secondary sex characteristics as well as new mental traits like curiosity, sex urge, knowledge, moral and standards, religious beliefs, forms of language and types of neurotic tendencies.

Factors of Development

There are two factors considered important in the development of an individual: maturation and learning:

Maturation is the development or unfolding of traits potentially present in the individual considering his hereditary endowment.

Learning is the result of activities or day-today experiences on the child himself.

Maturation and learning complement one another in the development of the individual.

Rate of Development

The rate of development of any human being may either be rapid or slow.

A rapid development is observed during the prenatal period and continues throughout the babyhood (except for the first two weeks which is known as "plateau stage" when no physical development takes place) up to the first six years.

Slow development starts from six years to adolescence. In adolescence, the rate of development is once more accelerated.

Activity (to be submitted on December 3, 2009 in a sheet of paper)

1. Show how maturation is related to heredity; learning to environment.
2. Explain what determines development, nature or nurture. Cite foreign and local researches to support your answer.

(Source: Developmental Psychology by Adelaida C. Gines, et al., Rex Bkstore, 1998)